Generating future states of the world is an essential component of high-level cognitive tasks such as planning. We explore the notion that such future-state generation is more widespread and forms an integral part of cognition. We call these generated states expectations, and propose that cognitive systems constantly generate expectations, match them to observed behavior and react when a difference exists between the two. We describe an ACT-R model that performs expectation-driven cognition on two tasks – pedestrian tracking and behavior classification. The model generates expectations of pedestrian movements to track them. The model also uses differences in expectations to identify distinctive features that differentiate these tracks. During learning, the model learns the association between these features and the various behaviors. During testing, it classifies pedestrian tracks by recalling the behavior associated with the features of each track. We tested the model on both single and multiple behavior datasets and compared the results against a k-NN classifier. The k-NN classifier outperformed the model in correct classifications, but the model had fewer incorrect classifications in the multiple behavior case, and both systems had about equal incorrect classifications in the single behavior case.