Complexity Results for Blocks-World Planning

Naresh Gupta, Dana S. Nau

Although blocks-world planning is well-known, its complexity has not previously been analyzed, and different planning researchers have expressed conflicting opinions about its difficulty. In this paper, we present the following results: 1. Finding optimal plans in a well-known formulation of the blocks-world planning domain is NP-hard, even if the goal state is completely specified. 2. Classical examples of deleted-condition interactions such as Sussman’s anomaly and creative destruction are not difficult to handle in this domain, provided that the right planning algorithm is used. Instead,the NP-hardness of the problem results from difficulties in determining which of several different actions will best help to achieve multiple goals.


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