In case-based reasoning (CBR), problems are solved by retrieving prior cases and adapting their solutions to fit; learning occurs as new cases are stored. Controlling the growth of the case base is a fundamental problem, and research on case-base maintenance has developed methods for compacting case bases while maintaining system competence, primarily by competence-based deletion strategies assuming static case adaptation knowledge. This paper proposes adaptation-guided case-base maintenance (AGCBM), a case-base maintenance approach exploiting the ability to dynamically generate new adaptation knowledge from cases. In AGCBM, case retention decisions are based both on cases' value as base cases for solving problems and on their value for generating new adaptation rules. he paper illustrates the method for numerical prediction tasks (case-based regression) in which adaptation rules are generated automatically using the case difference heuristic. In comparisons of AGCBM to five alternative methods in four domains, for varying case base densities, AGCBM outperformed the alternatives in all domains, with greatest benefit at high compression.