Temporal uncertainty in large-scale logistics forces one to trade off between lost efficiency through built-in slack and costly replanning when deadlines are missed. Due to the difficulty of reasoning about such likelihoods and consequences, a computational framework is needed to quantify and bound the risk of violating scheduling requirements. This work addresses the chance-constrained scheduling problem, where actions' durations are modeled probabilistically. Our solution method uses conflict-directed risk allocation to efficiently compute a scheduling policy. The key insight, compared to previous work in probabilistic scheduling, is to decouple the reasoning about temporal and risk constraints. This decomposes the problem into a separate master and subproblem, which can be iteratively solved much quicker. Through a set of simulated car-sharing scenarios, it is empirically shown that conflict-directed risk allocation computes solutions nearly an order of magnitude faster than prior art, which considers all constraints in a single lump-sum optimization.