The wealth of structured (e.g. Wikidata) and unstructured data about the world available today presents an incredible opportunity for tomorrow's Artificial Intelligence. So far, integration of these two different modalities is a difficult process, involving many decisions concerning how best to represent the information so that it will be captured or useful, and hand-labeling large amounts of data.DeepType overcomes this challenge by explicitly integrating symbolic information into the reasoning process of a neural network with a type system.First we construct a type system, and second, we use it to constrain the outputs of a neural network to respect the symbolic structure. We achieve this by reformulating the design problem into a mixed integer problem: create a type system and subsequently train a neural network with it. In this reformulation discrete variables select which parent-child relations from an ontology are types within the type system, while continuous variables control a classifier fit to the type system. The original problem cannot be solved exactly, so we propose a 2-step algorithm: 1) heuristic search or stochastic optimization over discrete variables that define a type system informed by an Oracle and a Learnability heuristic, 2) gradient descent to fit classifier parameters.We apply DeepType to the problem of Entity Linking on three standard datasets (i.e. WikiDisamb30, CoNLL (YAGO), TAC KBP 2010) and find that it outperforms all existing solutions by a wide margin, including approaches that rely on a human-designed type system or recent deep learning-based entity embeddings, while explicitly using symbolic information lets it integrate new entities without retraining.
Published Date: 2018-02-08
Registration: ISSN 2374-3468 (Online) ISSN 2159-5399 (Print)
Copyright: Published by AAAI Press, Palo Alto, California USA Copyright © 2018, Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence All Rights Reserved.