This paper considers a novel problem, named One-View Learning (OVL), in human retrieval a.k.a. person re-identification (re-ID). Unlike fully-supervised learning, OVL only requires pretty cheap annotation cost: labeled training images are only provided from one camera view (source view/domain), while the annotations of training images from other camera views (target views/domains) are not available. OVL is a problem of multi-target open set domain adaptation that is difficult for existing domain adaptation methods to handle. This is because 1) unlabeled samples are drawn from multiple target views in different distributions, and 2) the target views may contain samples of “unknown identity” that are not shared by the source view. To address this problem, this work introduces a novel one-view learning framework for person re-ID. This is achieved by adversarial multi-view learning (AMVL) and adversarial unknown rejection learning (AURL). The former learns a multi-view discriminator by adversarial learning to align the feature distributions between all views. The later is designed to reject unknown samples from target views through adversarial learning with two unknown identity classifiers. Extensive experiments on three large-scale datasets demonstrate the advantage of the proposed method over state-of-the-art domain adaptation and semi-supervised methods.