Monocular 3D object detection task aims to predict the 3D bounding boxes of objects based on monocular RGB images. Since the location recovery in 3D space is quite difficult on account of absence of depth information, this paper proposes a novel unified framework which decomposes the detection problem into a structured polygon prediction task and a depth recovery task. Different from the widely studied 2D bounding boxes, the proposed novel structured polygon in the 2D image consists of several projected surfaces of the target object. Compared to the widely-used 3D bounding box proposals, it is shown to be a better representation for 3D detection. In order to inversely project the predicted 2D structured polygon to a cuboid in the 3D physical world, the following depth recovery task uses the object height prior to complete the inverse projection transformation with the given camera projection matrix. Moreover, a fine-grained 3D box refinement scheme is proposed to further rectify the 3D detection results. Experiments are conducted on the challenging KITTI benchmark, in which our method achieves state-of-the-art detection accuracy.