This work studies the problem of batch off-policy evaluation for Reinforcement Learning in partially observable environments. Off-policy evaluation under partial observability is inherently prone to bias, with risk of arbitrarily large errors. We define the problem of off-policy evaluation for Partially Observable Markov Decision Processes (POMDPs) and establish what we believe is the first off-policy evaluation result for POMDPs. In addition, we formulate a model in which observed and unobserved variables are decoupled into two dynamic processes, called a Decoupled POMDP. We show how off-policy evaluation can be performed under this new model, mitigating estimation errors inherent to general POMDPs. We demonstrate the pitfalls of off-policy evaluation in POMDPs using a well-known off-policy method, Importance Sampling, and compare it with our result on synthetic medical data.
Published Date: 2020-06-02
Registration: ISSN 2374-3468 (Online) ISSN 2159-5399 (Print) ISBN 978-1-57735-835-0 (10 issue set)
Copyright: Published by AAAI Press, Palo Alto, California USA Copyright © 2020, Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence All Rights Reserved