Towards Optimal Fine Grained Retrieval via Decorrelated Centralized Loss with Normalize-Scale Layer
Recent advances on fine-grained image retrieval prefer learning convolutional neural network (CNN) with specific fullyconnect layer designed loss function for discriminative feature representation. Essentially, such loss should establish a robust metric to efficiently distinguish high-dimensional features within and outside fine-grained categories. To this end, the existing loss functions are defected in two aspects: (a) The feature relationship is encoded inside the training batch. Such a local scope leads to low accuracy. (b) The error is established by the mean square, which needs pairwise distance computation in training set and results in low efficiency. In this paper, we propose a novel metric learning scheme, termed Normalize-Scale Layer and Decorrelated Global Centralized Ranking Loss, which achieves extremely efficient and discriminative learning, i.e., 5× speedup over triplet loss and 12% recall boost on CARS196. Our method originates from the classic softmax loss, which has a global structure but does not directly optimize the distance metric as well as the inter/intra class distance. We tackle this issue through a hypersphere layer and a global centralized ranking loss with a pairwise decorrelated learning. In particular, we first propose a Normalize-Scale Layer to eliminate the gap between metric distance (for measuring distance in retrieval) and dot product (for dimension reduction in classification). Second, the relationship between features is encoded under a global centralized ranking loss, which targets at optimizing metric distance globally and accelerating learning procedure. Finally, the centers are further decorrelated by Gram-Schmidt process, leading to extreme efficiency (with 20 epochs in training procedure) and discriminability in feature learning. We have conducted quantitative evaluations on two fine-grained retrieval benchmark. The superior performance demonstrates the merits of the proposed approach over the state-of-the-arts.