AAAI Publications, Twenty-Second International FLAIRS Conference

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Analyzing Team Actions with Cascading HMM
Brandyn Allen White, Nate Blaylock, Ladislau Bölöni

Last modified: 2009-04-01


While team action recognition has a relatively extended literature, less attention has been given to the detailed realtime analysis of the internal structure of the team actions.  This includes recognizing the current state of the action, predicting the next state, recognizing deviations from the standard action model, and handling ambiguous cases. The underlying probabilistic reasoning model has a major impact on the type of data it can extract, its accuracy, and the computational cost of the reasoning process. In this paper we are using Cascading Hidden Markov Models (CHMM) to analyze Bounding Overwatch, an important team action in military tactics.

The team action is represented in the CHMM as a plan tree. Starting from real-world recorded data, we identify the subteams through clustering and extract team oriented discrete features. In an experimental study, we investigate whether the better scalability and the more structured information provided by the CHMM comes with an unacceptable cost in accuracy. We find the a properly parametrized CHMM estimating the current goal chain of the Bounding Overwatch plan tree comes very close to a flat HMM estimating only the overall Bounding Overwatch state (a subset of the goal chain) at a respective overall state accuracy of 95% vs 98%, making the CHMM a good candidate for deployed systems.


Bounding Overwatch; HMM; CHMM; Action Analysis

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