AAAI Publications, Thirty-First AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence

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Active Discriminative Text Representation Learning
Ye Zhang, Matthew Lease, Byron C. Wallace

Last modified: 2017-02-12

Abstract


We propose a new active learning (AL) method for text classification with convolutional neural networks (CNNs). In AL, one selects the instances to be manually labeled with the aim of maximizing model performance with minimal effort. Neural models capitalize on word embeddings as representations (features), tuning these to the task at hand. We argue that AL strategies for multi-layered neural models should focus on selecting instances that most affect the embedding space (i.e., induce discriminative word representations). This is in contrast to traditional AL approaches (e.g., entropy-based uncertainty sampling), which specify higher level objectives. We propose a simple approach for sentence classification that selects instances containing words whose embeddings are likely to be updated with the greatest magnitude, thereby rapidly learning discriminative, task-specific embeddings. We extend this approach to document classification by jointly considering: (1) the expected changes to the constituent word representations; and (2) the model’s current overall uncertainty regarding the instance. The relative emphasis placed on these criteria is governed by a stochastic process that favors selecting instances likely to improve representations at the outset of learning, and then shifts toward general uncertainty sampling as AL progresses. Empirical results show that our method outperforms baseline AL approaches on both sentence and document classification tasks. We also show that, as expected, the method quickly learns discriminative word embeddings. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work on AL addressing neural models for text classification.

Keywords


Convolutional Neural Network, Text Classification, Active Learning

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