Semantic Integration in Text: From Ambiguous Names to Identifiable Entities
Semantic integration focuses on discovering, representing, and manipulating correspondences between entities in disparate data sources. The topic has been widely studied in the context of structured data, with problems being considered including ontology and schema matching, matching relational tuples, and reconciling inconsistent data values. In recent years, however, semantic integration over text has also received increasing attention. This article studies a key challenge in semantic integration over text: identifying whether different mentions of real-world entities, such as "JFK" and "John Kennedy," within and across natural language text documents, actually represent the same concept. We present a machine-learning study of this problem. The first approach is a discriminative approach -- a pairwise local classifier is trained in a supervised way to determine whether two given mentions represent the same real-world entity. This is followed, potentially, by a global clustering algorithm that uses the classifier as its similarity metric. Our second approach is a global generative model, at the heart of which is a view on how documents are generated and how names (of different entity types) are "sprinkled" into them. In its most general form, our model assumes (1) a joint distribution over entities (for example, a document that mentions "President Kennedy" is more likely to mention "Oswald" or "White House" than "Roger Clemens"), and (2) an "author" model that assumes that at least one mention of an entity in a document is easily identifiable and then generates other mentions via (3) an "appearance" model that governs how mentions are transformed from the "representative" mention. We show that both approaches perform very accurately, in the range of 90-95 percent. F1 measure for different entity types, much better than previous approaches to some aspects of this problem. Finally, we discuss how our solution for mention matching in text can be potentially applied to matching relational tuples, as well as to linking entities across databases and text.
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