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Towards the Integration of Programming by Demonstration and Programming by Instruction using Golog

Last modified: 2010-07-07

#### Abstract

We present a formal approach for combining programming by demonstration (PbD) with programming by instruction (PbI) — a largely unsolved problem. Our solution is based on the integration of two successful formalisms: version space algebras and the logic programming language Golog. Version space algebras have been successfully applied to programming by demonstration. Intuitively, a version space describes a set of candidate procedures and a learner filters this space as necessary to be consistent with all given demonstrations of the target procedure. Golog, on the other hand, is a logical programming language defined in the situation calculus that allows for the specification of non-deterministic programs. While Golog was originally proposed as a means for integrating programming and automated planning, we show that it serves equally well as a formal framework for integrating PbD and PbI. Our approach is the result of two key insights: (a) Golog programs can be used to define version spaces, and (b) with only a minor augmentation, the existing Golog semantics readily provides the update-function for such version spaces, given demonstrations. Moreover, as we will show, two or more programs can be symbolically synchronized, resulting in the intersection of two, possibly infinite, version spaces. The framework thus allows for a rather flexible integration of PbD and PbI, and in addition establishes a new connection between two active research areas, enabling cross-fertilization.

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