FrameNet Meets the Semantic Web: A DAML+OIL Representation of FrameNet

Srini Narayanan, Charles Fillmore, Collin Baker, Miriam Petruck

The Berkeley FrameNet project is creating an online lexical resource for English, based on the principles of Frame Semantics and supported by corpus evidence. A semantic frame is a script-like structure of inferences, linked by linguistic convention to the meanings of linguistic units, (for purposes of this paper, lexical items). Each frame identifies a set of frame elements (FEs), which are semantic roles identifying components of the frame (participants, props, phases of the state of affairs associated with the frame). A frame-semantic description of a lexical item identifies the frames which underlie a given meaning and specifies the ways in which FEs are realized in structures headed by the word. The FrameNet database documents the range of semantic and syntactic combinatory possibilities (valences) of each word in each of its senses, through manual annotation of example sentences and automatic summarization and presentation of the annotation results. The annotated sentences form the basis of the lexical entries, which can be searched by lemma, frame, FEs, or a combination of these. The FrameNet data has been translated into DAML+OIL (, a widely used language related to the Semantic Web initiative ( The DAML+OIL language is being developed as an extension to XML and the Resource Description Framework (RDF). The latest release of the language provides a rich set of constructs to create ontologies and to mark up information into machine readable and understandable form. We have developed an automatic translator from FrameNet XML to DAML+OIL; this paper reports on our representation of FrameNet data in DAML+OIL.

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