Chun-Heng Ho and Charles M. Eastman
Spatial ability is used to predict success in certain domains, including design. However many ambiguities in spatial ability need to be clarified if education in design is to become more effective. Ambiguities in spatial ability include the overlapping of spatial sub-factors, strategy effects in spatial problem solving, and the ambiguity between 2D and 3D representations. Since it is hard to identify the sub-factors of spatial ability especially when design problems are much more complex than spatial aptitude tests, problem solving strategy might be a better way to approach what students learn that contributes to the improvement of their spatial ability.